1) What is Prototyping
Prototyping is an attractive and feasible model for those complex and large systems which have no manual process or existing system for determining the requirements. Prototype development is based on currently known requirements. Prototype gives client the actual feel of system. It also help clients for better understanding of the desired system requirements.
Prototype is not a complete system itself. Many details are also not built in the prototype model. Basic goal of Prototype model is to provide a system which gives overall functionality.
This model is used when client is not sure about the project requirements. Close communication between company and client is important for the prototype model success. First Initial prototype is presented to the client. Prototype is an iterative process which finalize the product with different trial and errors.
Agile vs Waterfall Differences in Software Development Methodologies
There are four prototype model conceptions:
· Patched-up prototypes
· Non-operational scale models
· First full scale models
· Essential system features prototype
1.2) Guidelines for Prototype model
· Work in manageable modules
· Modify prototype in successive iterations
· Build prototype rapidly
· Stress UI
1.3) Prototype Model Advantages
· Obtain user feedbacks in initial stages of project.
· Initial project estimate that either the project can successfully meet the deadlines or not.
· It reduces the expenses.
· It also allow to make changings in finished product.
· Users are involved in development process.
· This methodology provides a working model to her users, which gives users a better understanding of developed system.
· Errors are detected in this methodology much earlier than others.
· Missing functionalities are easily identified.
· It provides the option to stop development on any unworkable system.
· Developed program is closely related to user’s expectations and needs.
1.4) Prototype Model Disadvantages
· It is a slow processing methodology.
· This system first lead to implementation of system and then repairing way.
· This is a complex system and scope of system expands beyond the original plans.
· Incomplete applications are often not useable.
· Insufficient analysis is another disadvantage of prototype model.
· Users mostly get confused in prototype system, because sometime the final system is not as the initial prototype was.
· Too many changes disturbs the developer’s rhythm.
· Users demanded features are sometime misunderstood by developer because of too much user involvement.
· Because of iterative and rapid nature managing the prototype process is a difficult task.
· Clear communication with end users is essential.
1.5) When to use Prototype model
Development team uses prototype model, when they want to add end users interaction in the project. Mostly online systems, and web interfaces highly need end users interaction in project. This system gives ease of use and end users need very minimal training. In prototype development methodology end users are constantly kept in touch with development process and their feedbacks are valued, which make system useable. Prototype development methodology is very good for designing the CIS (Computer interface systems). We use Prototype model, when we need lot of end users interaction in desired system.
2) Agile Methodology
In Agile, development is divided into small iterations which are called Sprints. This is a better development methodology due to its continuous planning, testing, integration, risk evaluation and control on the progress of the project and thereupon reduces the chances of project failure.
Agile is used to plan quickly, develop quickly, release quickly and revise quickly.
This methodology is one step forward than waterfall. Agile methodology was created after facing the lot of disadvantages of waterfall in many procedures. Rather than working in sequential design like waterfall, agile works in incremental (regular series) approach.
In Agile, a project is converted into small parts known as Sprints. Each sprint can be completed using waterfall steps; like, Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Implementation and finally Maintenance.
That’s why we can say that Agile is like micro waterfall. We split work into tasks and then run waterfall process on each task.
2.1) Agile values
2.2) Agile Principles
· Providing rapid feedback
· Adopting simplicity
· Changing incrementally
· Embracing change
· Encouraging quality work
2.3) Agile Activities
2.4) Agile control variables
Kanban Vs Scrum Benefits, Similarities, Pros and cons
2.5) Agile Phases
· Iterations to the first release
· Product ionizing
2.6) Risks (when adopting a new information system)
· Culture of organization and the systems development team
· Client’s reactions
· Measuring impact
· Programmers and analysts individual rights
2.7) Advantages of Agile
Agile means “moving quickly indicating the dynamic approach of Agile.
· Agile is a flexible methodology.
· Agile is very accommodative to changes.
· Agile methodology caters the ever changing requirements.
· Its rapid delivery helps to satisfy customers.
· There is no guesswork between development team and customer.
· It includes continuous inputs from the client and face to face communication.
· It is highly collaborative development process.
· It is a continuous improvements process.
· Requirements are expected to evolve and change in this process.
· It has rapid deployment for work.
· Its phases are well-processed and completed once at a time.
· This process helps to measure the progress by the amount of completed work.
· This is a constantly improving process since changes can be made during the process.
· It helps you to deliver exactly according to client’s expectation.
· It is easy to add up-to-date features in program at any time.
· Project priorities are evaluated at the end of every sprint, which helps client to add their feedback about product.
· In Agile bugs are solved in each sprint, so there are very less chances that you face any error at the end of development cycle.
· This methodology helps to launch program at any level.
· Teams get self-motivated due to cross functionality.
· Tracing progress is very easy in this methodology.
· Structured backlog helps to monitor progress.
2.8) Disadvantages of Agile Methodology
· If the project manager is not experienced, then project can become a large series of sprints, and come in late and over budget.
· This is a less predictable process about projects output (final product isn’t defined clearly).
· It is very hard for the client to handover the project to any other Vendor for more development or any maintenance.
· Final project can be different from initial plan.
· Frequent complaints for every small reason can mentally disturb developers.
· For the completion of project every team member should be open minded and communicative.
· Product owner and scrum master is highly pressurized in this methodology.
· Sometimes managing the backlog itself becomes too much.
Scrum Master vs Product Owner Differences in skills, duties and responsibilities (Agile Methodology)
2.9) When to use Agile
In Agile rapid production is more important than product quality. Client can change project scope. Final picture of project is not clear. This methodology is more useful when you have skilled developers, who can think independently and capable of adapting every tough project. Rapidly changing standards industries prefer to use this methodology.